Instructions for Authors
How to prepare a manuscript
Article types: We predominantly publish one of these main article types:
Research articles should describe a piece of original research, with results (positive or negative) which advance the scientific field or add evidence to a proposed theory. All research articles are expected to be appropriately referenced, citing all prior research pertinent to the work being presented.
Review articles are typically commissioned by the editor-in-chief. If you have an idea for a review article, please in the first instance.
Case studies are detailed reports of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.
Editorials are usually reserved for the editor-in-chief and editorial board. However guest editorials will occasionally be commissioned. Again, if you wish to be considered for writing an editorial, please .
Letters: We encourage readers of the journal to engage in formal communication with the journal via a Letter to the Editor. Letters should typically be short (
SARJ of Bioscience and Medicine style guide
Language: We accept manuscripts written in English only. You may use American or British spellings throughout, but not a mixture. All articles will be copyedited prior to acceptance. Some will be copyedited prior to review. Authors will be able to review the edits before final acceptance.
Typography: For ease of reviewing, we kindly ask that submitted manuscripts be double line spaced.
Text should be left-justified, with no hyphenation at line breaks.
Titles, headings and subheadings should have only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
Again, to make reviewers lives simpler, we ask that you number all pages.
Greek and other special characters may be included. If you are having difficulty reproducing a special character, please type out the name of the symbol in full. Similarly for mathematical equations, standard TeX instructions and abbreviations may be used, e.g. sqrt(s) for square root of s.
All special characters used should be embedded in the text, otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF.
Genes, mutations, genotypes, and alleles should be indicated in italics, and authors are required to use approved gene symbols, names, and formatting. Protein products should be in plain type.
Preparing main manuscript text, inc. general guidelines
Authors are advised to send their articles through the or via email as attachment to:
Three types of manuscripts may be submitted:
Regular articles: These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.
Short Communications: A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, gene isolation and identification, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 6 to 12 manuscript pages) in length.
Minireview: Submissions of mini-reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encouraged. Mini-reviews should be concise and no longer than 4-6 printed pages (about 12 to 18 manuscript pages). Mini-reviews are also peer-reviewed.
All manuscripts are reviewed by an editor and members of the Editorial Board or qualified outside reviewers. Decisions will be made as rapidly as possible, and the journal strives to return reviewers’ comments to authors within 3 weeks. The editorial board will re-review manuscripts that are accepted pending revision. It is the goal of the SARJ of Bioscience and Medicine to publish manuscripts within 8 weeks after submission.
All portions of the manuscript must be typed double-spaced and all pages numbered starting from the title page.
The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote.
The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 100 to 200 words in length.. Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.
Following the abstract, about 3 to 10 key words that will provide indexing references to should be listed.
A list of non-standard Abbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined. Use the same abbreviations as the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.
Materials and methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.
Results should be presented with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.
The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.
The Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.
Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.
Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or Powerpoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Fig 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.
References: In the text, a reference identified by means of an author‘s name should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. When there are more than two authors, only the first author‘s name should be mentioned, followed by ’et al‘. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like ’a‘ and ’b‘ after the date to distinguish the works.
Smith (2000), Blake et al. (2003), (Kelebeni, 1983), (Chandra and Singh,1992),(Chege, 1998; Steddy, 1987a,b; Gold, 1993,1995), (Kumasi et al., 2001)
References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text (e.g., A. Kingori, University of Nairobi, Kenya, personal communication). Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.
Diaz E, Prieto MA (2000). Bacterial promoters triggering biodegradation of aromatic pollutants. Curr. Opin. Biotech. 11: 467-475.
Dorn E, Knackmuss HJ (1978). Chemical structure and biodegradability of halogenated aromatic compounds. Two catechol 1, 2 dioxygenases from a 3-chlorobenzoate-grown Pseudomonad. Biochem. J. 174: 73-84.
Pitter P, Chudoba J (1990). Biodegradability of Organic Substances in
the Aquatic Environment. CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
Alexander M (1965). Biodegradation: Problems of Molecular Recalcitrance
and Microbial Fallibility. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 7: 35-80.
Boder ET, Wittrup KD (1997). Yeast surface display for screening combinatorial polypeptide libraries. Nat. Biotechnol. 15: 537-553.
Short Communications: Short Communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences: (1) Abstracts are limited to 100 words; (2) instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes; (3) Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.
Proofs and Reprints: Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.
Article Processing Fees
Article processing Fees (APFs) are associated with accepted articles to cover the costs of making the final version of the manuscript freely available via open access. Typically they cover part of the costs of the following:
Peer review management
In-house copyediting and linguistic support
Electronic composition & typesetting
Manuscript submission systems
Permanent Journal archiving systems
Editorial and administrative costs with unlimited space for figures, extensive data and video footage
Inclusion in Crossref, giving a permanent DOI and enabling easy citation in other journals.
- Archiving, where appropriate, in an internationally recognized, open access repository such as PubMed Central.
For SARJ of Bioscience and Medicine, the APF is US$600.
Authors may still request (in advance) that the Journal Office waive some of the handling fee under special circumstances.